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glossary


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Acceptance Paper

A colloquial term for short-term promissory notes issued by sales finance companies to fund loans to consumers for cars, appliances etc. (See Finance Company Paper.)

Accounts payable

Debts owed by a company that are payable within one year.

Accounts receivable

Debts owed to a company for goods or services it has sold for which payment is expected within one year.

Accrued Interest

Interest accumulated on a bond or debenture since the last interest payment date.

Affiliated Company

A company whose shares are owned to the extent of less than 50% by another corporation, or one whose stock, with that of another corporation, is owned by the same controlling interests.

American Depository Receipts (ADRs)

A system devised by the American investment community whereby the original stock certificate of a foreign security is registered in the name of an American trust company or a U.S. bank and held in safekeeping by them. The trust company or bank then issues receipts against this stock, and these are traded as ADRs. The system developed because purchasers of foreign securities found that it could take several months to have stock registered in their name, when the original certificate had to be sent from North America to England, South Africa, or Germany, etc., to effect the transfer.

Amortization

Gradually writing off the value of an asset over a period of time. Commonly applied to intangible assets such as goodwill, improvements to leased premises, or expenses of a new bond issue.

Annual Report

The formal financial statements and report on operations issued by a company to its shareholders after its fiscal year-end.

Arbitrage

The simultaneous purchase of a security on one stock exchange and the sale of the same security on an other exchange at prices which yield a profit to the arbitrageur.

Arrears

Interest or dividends which were not paid when due but are still owed.

Assets

Everything a company or a person owns or has owed to it.

Associated Company

A company owned jointly by two or more other companies.

Averages and Indices

Statistical tools that measure the state of the stock market or the economy, based on the performance of stocks or other meaningful components, e.g., the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the TSX Composite Index, The Nasdaq Index and the Consumer Price Index, etc.

Averaging Down

Buying more of a security at a lower price than the original investment. Aim: to reduce the average cost per unit. (See Dollar Cost Averaging.)


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